Indonesia is a country where majority Moslem live there. The Moslem majority tend to become a main problem than solution to consolidate democracy and supreme pluralism values in this country. The Moslem problem is that democracy and pluralism values are not originally came from Moslem tradition, but from the West. “West,” in Moslem’s sense, is a common enemy, because of their tradition of Christianity. In the mind of Moslem majority, Christians are people who always want to exclude Moslems from the world. Allah said like that in the Qoran.
The sentiment of anti-Christianity, now, is more rising in all of Moslem world. Based on several surveys, the rising of religiosity or spirituality of Moslem people have positive correlation with anti-Christianity movements. It’s so bad for developing democracy in Indonesia, because almost every regions in Indonesia, Moslem and Christian society live together.
For a long time, New Order (Orde Baru), ruled from 1966 until 1998, success to repress the sentiment through authoritarian policy. But when New Order collapsed in 1998, the sentiment rised extremely. It’s proved in many violence movements like conflict among tribes, religion community, Christmas bombings (2000), Atrium Senen bombing (2001), Bali bombings (2002 and 2005), Australia Embassy bombings (2004), and many violence organized by FPI, FUI, MMI, HTI, and other Moslem groups.
In my opinion, there are many factor to understand this phenomenon. Firstly, it’s a common phenomenon in all of the transition countries. The transition, according to Samuel P. Huntington, needs social changes. The changes make people rethink about the form of their institution. Social mobilization has opportunity in this time. If the state has enough power to manage it, the mobilization may become unviolence movements. But if the state has not much power to control it, violence may become result.
Secondly, in many countries which have many young people tend easy to be mobilized in violence movements. It’s happen in America and Europe in 1960s. In 1980s, the rise of delivering in Indonesia was 1.9% per year. And this is why young people dominate Indonesian society in 2000s.
Finally, the fact that Indonesia has so many young people is not supported by a good educational process. The system of education in Indonesia, and other Moslem countries, is not to enlighten the people. The implication of education process in Indonesia is mobilizing of violence movements. Almost all of the violence in Indonesia has been done by educated young people.
So, the main solution of the problems, according to me, is interfaith dialog through education system. We must stop using education institution as the basis of radical violence movements. We need to campaign this to governments and all of the people elements.